Journey of Racial Discrimination in Educational Genealogical Analysis


  • Dan Royer Ball State University
  • Bo Chang Ball State University


Racial discrimination, equality in education, shifts of the history, Genealogical analysis


In this paper, we uncover how racial discrimination in education has shifted in different periods of time. Using the genealogical analysis method, we examined three distinct time periods. Racial discrimination does not disappear, but penetrates into the micro-educational context through curriculum, in grades, and funding to normalize people into a mainstream culture.

This study is meaningful since we consider racial discrimination in education in different periods of time. In the first period, nearly all restrictions identified were structural in nature, while in the second period, fewer structural limitations remained, but were combined with a paternalistic approach. Finally in the third period, unspoken and off the table structural prohibitions exist through approaches that allow discrimination to continue. Acknowledging this changing agenda in different periods of time sheds light on ways to break the structural barriers and promote students equal access to education.

Author Biographies

Dan Royer, Ball State University

Dan Royer is a doctoral student in the adult community and higher education program in the Teacher’s College at Ball State University, U.S.A.  His research interests include: social justice; racial discrimination; racial reconciliation and religion; appreciative inquiry; leadership transition; post-structuralism; community colleges; and adjunct faculty. He has been an adult educator in religious and higher education organizations prior to entering the doctoral program.

Bo Chang, Ball State University

Bo Chang is an associate professor of adult and community education in the Department of Educational Studies at the College of Education, Ball State University, U.S.A. Her research interests include: Adult learning; learning and tools such as culture, media, language, discourse, and social networks; learning community; community-based adult education; power and knowledge; knowledge construction; social constructionism; and post-structuralism. She has taught adult learners and facilitated training programs for adults in a variety of contexts. She has published many articles in the areas of adult learning, training and adult education.


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