Decolonizing Pedagogy by Appropriating Yoga. The Role of White Women in the Search for Social Justice within Higher Education
Keywords:Post-colonialism, pedagogy, race, yoga, white women
AbstractHigher education in North America replicates cultural and psychological values that are distinctive of its colonialist roots. Within this system some educators seek to challenge the status quo by introducing new pedagogical practices with the potential to evoke transformation and change. This mixed methods study sought to understand the use of yoga as pedagogy in undergraduate courses across North America. Participants integrating yoga as a teaching tool verbalized hopes of uprooting the hierarchies of privilege that exist within higher education; simultaneously, secularizing yoga necessitated removing the discipline from its historical context, replicating colonialist values of appropriation. The role of white women in seeking social justice, and replicating colonialist values is discussed within the context of higher education.
(Freire, 2001)Antony, M. G. (2014). "It's Not Religious, But It's Spiritual:" Appropriation and the Universal Spirituality of Yoga. Journal of Communication & Religion, 37(4), 63-81.
Behmer, P. M. (2019). Moving to Learn: A Meditative Yoga Approach to Teaching and Learning Anatomy and Physiology in Multiple Contexts. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, 2019(161), 67-77. doi:10.1002/ace.20312
Bhabha, H. (2006). The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge Press.
Breault, R. A. (2003). Dewey, Freire, and a pedagogy for the oppressor. Multicultural Education, 10(3), 2-6.
Brockington, J., Carpenter, D., Whicher, I., Pflueger, L., Chapple, C. K., Sundaresan, V., . . . Hayes, G. A. (2003). Yoga: The indian tradition. New York: Routledge Press.
Cariaga, S. (2019). Towards Self-Recovery: Cultivating Love with Young Women of Color Through Pedagogies of Bodymindspirit. Urban Review, 51(1), 101-122. doi:10.1007/s11256-018-0482-9
Chidbhavananda, S. (2005). The BhagavadGita. Tiruchirappalli: Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam.
Cohen, J. (2006). The missing body- Yoga and higher education. The Journal of the Assembly for Expanded Perspectives in Learning 12(winter), 14-24.
Counihan, B. (2007). Using hatha Yoga breathing assignments: An essai. In S. Shelton-Colangelo, C. Mancuso, & M. Duvall (Eds.), Teaching with joy: Educational practices for the twenty-first century New York: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. .
Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitiative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publishers, Inc.
Dalal, A. S. (2001). Psychology, mental health and Yoga (2nd edition ed.). Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ahram Press
Dewey, J. (1944). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: Free Press.
Douglass, L. (2009). Yoga as an intervention for eating disorders: Does it help? . Eating Disorders: The journal of treatment and prevention., 17 (2), 126-139.
Douglass, L. (2010). Yoga in the Public Schools: Diversity, Democracy and the Use of Critical Thinking in Educational Debates. Religion & Education, 37(2), 162-169.
Duvall, M., Mancuso, C., Donnelly, L., Counihan, B., Schmid, T., Shelto-Colangelo, S., . . . al., E. (2007). Teaching with joy: Educational practices for the twenty-first century. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. .
Fletcher, J. H. (2016). Warrants for Reconstruction: Christian Hegemony, White Supremacy. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 51(1), 54-79. doi:10.1353/ecu.2016.0011
Freire, P. (2001). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage (P. Clark, Trans.). New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Freire, P. (2006). Pedagogy of the Oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans. 30th ed.). New York: Continuum Press.
Giroux, H., Lankshear, C., McLaren, P., & Peters, M. (1996). Counternarratives. New York: SUNY press.
Hassel, H. (2017). Engaged Learning. Teaching English in the Two Year College, 44(4), 349-350.
Hatcher, B. (1999). Eclecticism and Modern Hindu Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press.
Helberg, N., Heyes, C., & Rohel, J. (2009). Thinking through the body: yoga, philosophy,a nd physical education. Teaching Philosophy, 32(3), 263(218).
hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge Press
hooks, b. (2000). Where we stand:Class matters. New York Routledge Press
Horton, M., & Freire, P. (1990). We make the road by walking: Conversations on education and social change. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Jain, A. (2016). Mysticism and Spirituality, New Religions, Rituals, Practices, and Symbolism Oxford Research Encylcopedia (pp. Retrieved on 1/1/2019 from http://oxfordre.com/religion/view/2010.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.9780199340001.9780199340001/acrefore-9780199340378-e-9780199340163). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
King, R. (2002). Orientalism and Religion: Post Colonial Theory, India and the "Mystic East". New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.
Krishnamurti, J. (2003). Beginnings of learning (3rd ed.). London: Phoenix, an imprint of Orion Books, Ltd. .
Krishnananda, S. (2009). Lessons of the Upanishads.
Leggett, T. (1990). The Complete Commentary by Sankara on the Yoga Sutras: A Full Translation of the Newly Discovered Text. New York: Kegan Paul International.
Leistyna, P. (1999). Presence of Mind: Education and the Politics of Deception. Boulder, Co. : Westview Press.
Liou, A. (2018). MODEL MINORITY MUTINY: WHITENESS IS A PLAGUE. Asian American Policy Review, 28, 79-82.
Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Miller, J., Moore, T., Lemkow, A., Sloan, D., Eisler, R., O'Sullivan, E., . . . Nozawa, A. (2005). Holistic learning and spirituality in education. Albany, Ny: State University of New York Press.
Miller, J. P., & Nozawa, A. (2005). Contemplative Practices in Teacher Education. Encounter, 18(1), 42-48.
Moore, M. C. (1992). Using meditation in the classroom. Hispania, 75(3), 734-735.
Orr, D. (2002). The Uses of Mindfulness in Anti-oppressive Pedagogies: Philosophy and Praxis. Canadian Journal of Education, 27(4), 477-497. doi:10.2307/1602246
Palmer, P., Remen, R. N., Rinpoche, T. D. P., Hayward, J., Lama, H. H. t. D., Simmer-Brown, J., . . . Harding, V. (1999). The Heart of Learning: Spirituality in Education. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/ Penguin.
Ramaswamy, K., Nicholas, A. d., & Banerjee, A. (2007). Invading the sacred: An analysis of Hinduism studies in America. New Delhi, India: Rupa and Co. .
Rasmussen, D. (2002). Qallunology: A pedagogy for the oppressor. Philosophy of Education Yearbook 85-94.
Ravindra, R. (2006). The spiritual roots of yoga. Sandpoint, ID: Morning Light Press.
Rockefeller, S. C. (2006). Meditation, Social Change, and Undergraduate Education. Teachers College Record, 108(9), 1775-1786.
Said, E. (1993). Culture and imperialism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Said, E. (1994). Orientalism (25th ed.). New York: Vintage Books.
Sandoval, C. (2000). Methodology of the Oppressed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Sankaracharya, S., Suresvaracharya, S., & Vidyaranya, S. (1993). The Taittiriya Upanishad (A. M. Sastry, Trans.). Madras, India: Samata Books.
Saoji, A., Mohanty, S., & Vinchurkar, S. (2017). Effect of a Single Session of a Yogic Meditation Technique on Cognitive Performance in Medical Students: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Journal of Religion & Health, 56(1), 141-148. doi:10.1007/s10943-016-0195-x
Sarath, E. (2003). Meditation in Higher Education: The Next Wave? Innovative Higher Education, 27(4), 215-233.
Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. New York, New York: Zed Books.
Sun, Q. (2019). Eastern Thoughts, Western Practices: Meditation and Mindfulness Relaxation Activities for Learning and Wellâ€Being in Adult and Higher Education. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, 2019(161), 45-55. doi:10.1002/ace.20310
Vacarr, B. (2001). Moving beyond polite correctness: practicing mindfulness in the diverse classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 71(2), 285-295.
Zajonc, A. (2006). Love and Knowledge: Recovering the Heart of Learning Through Contemplation. Teachers College Record, 108(9), 1742-1759.
Zupancic, M. (2007). Teaching a holistic approach to yoga in an academic setting. http://www.metkazupancic.com/1.pdf, Retreived August 5, 2008.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).