Exploring relationships between academic hardiness, academic stressors and achievement in university undergraduates
The article reports results from the validation of the â€œUndergraduates Stressors Questionnaireâ€ and the relationship between academic stressors and academic hardiness in university undergraduates. In study 1, 845 undergraduates completed the â€œUndergraduates Stressor Questionnaireâ€. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 7-factor solution, which explained 61.6% of the total variance. Scale scores showed adequate internal consistency. The results of study 1 recognized that undergraduates are subject to numerous academic stressors such as lack of leisure time, academic performance, fear of failure, academic overload, finance, competition between students, relationships with university faculty. In study 2, 478 undergraduates completed the â€œUndergraduates Stressor Questionnaireâ€ and the revised Academic Hardiness Scale. The study indicates that students become less hardy in terms of commitment and challenge across the years of study and provides evidence for the moderating role of academic hardiness on studentsâ€™ daily university stressors. The study also revealed that â€œlow academic hardinessâ€ students reported higher stress. The findings are discussed in the context of the recent literature.
This Agreement (the Agreement) is made by and between __________(Author(s)) and "JAEPR" (the Journal)). Author Agreement By submitting this research article entitled "_____________" ('article') to (JAEPR) published by the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, the Author(s) certify that: I. Warranties: A. Author __________(name) is legally authorized and possesses full power and authority on behalf of my co-authors [list names] to enter into this Agreement. B. Author warrants, on behalf of all article authors, that:a. the article is original, has not been formally published in any other peer-reviewed journal, is not under consideration for publication by any other journal and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other third party rights;b. The named authors (above) are the sole author(s) of the article. Any co-author not signing this Agreement personally has granted full authority to [named author in I.A.] to enter into this agreement of his/her behalf and to grant the following rights to JAEPR set forth below.c. the article contains nothing that is unlawful, libellous, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract.II.CopyrightAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: a. Author(s) shall retain copyright to the article but grant the Journal right of first publication, and the irrevocable right to perpetually disseminate the article as part of the Journal subject to the Creative Commons Attribution License, that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.b. Beginning one year after the date of formal publication of the article, Authors may enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work and subject to the Creative Commons Attribution License (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), subject to a proper acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal: â€œThis article was originally published in the Dialog (Vol., Issue, Year). III. Indemnification. Author shall indemnify, defend, and hold harmless the Journal from any and all claims, liabilities, damages, expenses (including attorneys fees and expert costs, penalties, fees, if any arising from enforcement of this Agreement and/or related to claims of infringement of copyrights or proprietary rights allegedly contained in the Article , or resulting from a claim of defamation, obscenity, or invasion of privacy based upon or arising out of the publication of the Article or any other breach of warranty as set forth in No. 1.