African American Resilience: The Need for Policy in Escaping the Trap of Special Education

Farris Muhammad


African-American male students are disproportionately displaced in the special educational systems throughout inner-city public schools in America. Throughout the nation, public schools are showing a consistent trend regarding the student population in special education. Three common demographic variables remain salient: race, social class, and gender (Ford, 2011; Kea & Utley, 1998). In looking at the students who are most likely to be positioned in special education, research reveals the students are Black, male, and poverty-stricken  (Harry, Klinger, & Moore, 2000; Holzman, 2006; Noguera, 2005). Through critical analyses of this problem, data indicates a need for additional research on the interconnection of race-conscious educational policy, cultural pedagogy, and special education.

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